Excel TIP (Add Data Validation with a Drop-Down List)


It is important to be mindful of how you are entering repetitive data in excel. There is nothing worse than trying to validate and modify a column that has the same value written multiple ways! Look at this contact information, where the same state is recorded differently.


If you needed to filter this list on state you’d have to account for all representations of Texas!

Adding drop down validation is a great way to ensure values will be recorded consistently – and it is super easy to do in excel!

Let’s say Maggie’s Pet Supply sales team is calling a list of pet stores. One of the items they need to capture is the product they are interested in ordering


Rather than rely on the sales team to capture the correct product name, we can store the list of products as a validation list that can be selected by a drop-down.

  • To do this, add a second sheet to store the list of possible products


  • Next, highlight the column you want to be able to select the drop-down items
  • Under the Home tab, select ‘Data Validation’


  • For Validation criteria, allow ‘List’


  • Click in the Source box and then Click on the Product sheet
  • Highlight the values in the list and select OK


  • Navigate back to the Call Sheet and you can now select items for your drop down!





The Curiosity Habit (How To Discover Interesting)


The world we live in is an incredibly interesting place. I was fortunate enough to visit Italy a few years ago and I remember the satisfying experience of being able to walk down any alley in Rome and finding something new to explore. I felt grateful to take part in the Human journey.

Our daily lives can feel a little less interesting and a bit routine:

  • Wake up
  • Shower
  • Eat
  • Work
  • Socialize
  • Sleep

Day-in and day-out. If we could enter a state of curiosity at any time we might begin notice the interesting things in the mundane. For example:

  • just an hour before we wake up, our body temperature begins to rise, our brains are flooded with chemicals like norepinephrine, acetylcholine and serotonin that wake us up and keep us alert. It’s is an incredibly complex process.
  • Have you ever stopped and considered that when you turn on the shower, miles and miles of plumbing must work together to provide you with water? Every soap, conditioner, and skin cleanser is a different product with ingredients sourced from different places and marketed by different companies (unless you use a 3-in-one).
  • What we eat provides nutrients and the fuel necessary to carry us through the day.
  • Where we work, most likely, is a complex network of roles and responsibilities working together to accomplish a single goal where each department has its own set of skills, its own systems and processes that have been created through years of trial and error. If you work for a successful company, the odds of it ever being successful were always stacked against it!
  • Each of our family members and friends that we socialize with have separate lives, thoughts, interests and desires that are heavily influenced by the way we interact with them.
  • There are pages and pages written about the wonderful and rejuvenating process of sleep, and where our minds journey during sleep.

What if we could put on our ‘Curious Hats’ on all the time? What if every day felt a bit like walking down an ancient cobbled alley in Rome? I’ve recently began challenging myself to be more curious more often. I look at curiosity as an important habit that has the ability to fuel personal development and happiness . If you’re curious, I’d like to share some advice from modern psychology, business, and personal experience about how to  engage in a more curious life.

Read Voraciously

Voracious, Adjective – wanting or devouring great quantities of food

I love this word – Just saying it is satisfying. Vor-a-cious. Pronouncing it makes you bear your teeth. The curious read everything: Signs, posters, shampoo bottles, books on chemistry, history, pop-culture, sci-fi, journals, magazines – anything that may pique their interest. For many people their is a gap between what interests them, and what they learn – the curious constantly try to close this gap with reading. Psychologist and sociologist B.F Skinner recommended that “When you run into something interesting, drop everything else and study it.” Don’t feel intimidated by the amounts of knowledge or literature available for a certain subject – starting anywhere is good enough. Skinner also mentions that “The feeling of being interested can act as a kind of neurological signal, directing us to fruitful areas of inquiry.” Starting the process of reading lends itself to interest in reading. I’ve sometimes come across a book I’ve been interested in and thought someday, I would like to read that. When that happens, just open up and start reading – even for five minutes. It may lead you down a completely new path.

Don’t Worry About Messing Up

No one is as critical of you as you are. One of the biggest road blocks to curiosity is the fear of getting something wrong. Curiosity means asking questions and making some assumption. More often than not, your assumptions will be wrong. Don’t worry about it! It is not so much about getting the right answer as it is moving towards answers. In a scientific journal titled The Psychology of Neuroscience and Curiosity, the author notes that curiosity has a tendency to build upon itself by ‘Information Tradeoffs’ where the subject utilizes “probabilistic elements” to  “explore other possibilities, leading them to better overall choices” (Kidd). In short, curiosity builds on itself.

Be Mindful

Take action in your actions. The next time you are performing a task try to think critically and purposefully about what you are doing. Is there a better way to do it? Why is it done this way? If you had to teach someone else to do what you are doing, could you? As you start to pay more attention to your own actions, you’ll also be able to think critically and empathetically about the actions of others. When you open your mind to being mindful curiosity will come naturally.


The Psychology and Neuroscience of Curiosity
Kidd, Celeste et al.
Neuron , Volume 88 , Issue 3 , 449 – 460

Wai, Jonathan. Seven Ways to Be More Curious.Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/finding-the-next-einstein/201407/seven-ways-be-more-curious


Excel Trick: Using Formulas and Formatting to View Repetitive Data


With the approval of the good friend and colleague who first showed me, I wanted to share a helpful way to view repetitive data. Let’s assume that you are working with a list of companies and their associated contacts. After ordering the list by Company and scrolling down the list, it is easy to lose track of what you are looking at due to the repetitive nature of the data.

rep data

Try out this mixture of formulas and conditional formatting!

Before you begin, you’ll need a value that can identify each company which is present in each row, in this case I am using Company Name but you could also use Website, or a Company Number if available. You can use the data at the bottom of this post to follow along.

  • In the first row after the last column of the sheet, put a ‘0’. In this example, this will be in column J


  • In the cell below, write the following formula =if(A2=A1,J1,J1+1) and press ENTER


  • For the sake of the example, the 0 will be in column J, and column A will store our Company Name
  • Here, we are saying IF the Company Name in this row equals the Company Name above it, return the value in J1, in this case a 0 and if not, return J1 + 1, in this case 0+1
  • Continue the formula all the way down
    • The formula knows to increment the values based on it’s current row’s values
    • The result is that the same company has the same value in Column J and when the Company Name changes, the value increments by one! Cool, huh?


  • Next, we will nest our IF formula inside another, like a formula Inception without Tom Hardy or Leonardo DiCaprio. We will use the MOD function.
    • To do this, click into J1 where the formula resides. Add ‘MOD’ after the = sign followed by an open parenthesis.

MOD pt 1

  • At the end for the formula, add a comma followed by the number ‘2’ and a closed parenthesis

MOD pt 2

  • Here, we are telling excel to divide the number in J by 2 and return the remainder. A 2 will have a remainder of 0 when divided by 2 and a 3 will have a remainder of 1.
  • Drag the formula down the column
  • You’ll notice that each cell in Column J has either a 0 or 1

0 and 1

Great! We have the foundation to put some conditional formatting!

  • Select everything in the sheet and navigate to Conditional Formatting, under the Home Menu.
    • Select ‘New Rule’


  • Select ‘Use Formula to Determine Which Cell to Format’


  • Under the Rule Description, enter the following Formula
    • =$J1=1
  • Select ‘Format’, then ‘Fill’ and select any color


  • Click ‘OK’ and ‘Ok’ again
  • See you data color organized!


It may seem like a bunch of steps now, but after some practice you’ll be able to recreate quickly. I still find many cases where this comes in handy!

Example Data:

Company Name Website Address City State Country Postal Code Contact Name Email 0
Intelligence Network Committee http://www.theintelcom.com 654 Dangerzone Iceville TX United States 829918 John Erich john@theintelcom.com 1
Intelligence Network Committee http://www.theintelcom.com 654 Dangerzone Iceville TX United States 829918 Grant Christian grant@theintelcom.com 1
Intelligence Network Committee http://www.theintelcom.com 654 Dangerzone Iceville TX United States 829918 Jeff Gulder jeff@theintelcom.com 1
Intelligence Network Committee http://www.theintelcom.com 654 Dangerzone Iceville TX United States 829918 Brain Burke brain@theintelcom.com 1
Sales Zone http://www.szone.net 718 Winner Los Angeles CA United States 90210 Karen Lyons klyons@thesalezone.com 0
Sales Zone http://www.szone.net 718 Winner Los Angeles CA United States 90210 Jeff Lyons jlyons@thesalezone.com 0
Sales Zone http://www.szone.net 718 Winner Los Angeles CA United States 90210 Sandy Hookshank shookshank@thesalezone.com 0
Sales Zone http://www.szone.net 718 Winner Los Angeles CA United States 90210 Johnny Boy jboy@thesalezone.com 0
Sales Zone http://www.szone.net 718 Winner Los Angeles CA United States 90210 Pupper Doggo pdoggo@thesalezone.com 0
The Mobile Phone Store http://www.mphonestore.com 123 Fake Street Fakevill KY United States 92011 Goldi Sampson goldi@mobilephonestore.com 1
The Mobile Phone Store http://www.mphonestore.com 123 Fake Street Fakevill KY United States 92011 Aaron Sampson aaron.sampson@mobilephonestore.com 1
The Office Gentleman http://www.theofficegentleman.org 555 Example Street Mainville CA United States 99221 Grant Ongstad grant.ongstad@theofficegentleman.org 0
The Office Gentleman http://www.theofficegentleman.org 555 Example Street Mainville CA United States 99221 Sarah Connor sarah.connor@theofficegentleman.org 0
The Office Gentleman http://www.theofficegentleman.org 555 Example Street Mainville CA United States 99221 Maggie May maggie.may@theofficegentleman.org 0
Tim’s Tool Shack http://www.timstoolshack.net 829 Rochester Way New York NY United States 291 Tim Anderson Tim@timstoolshack.com 1
Tom’s Baseball http://www.tomsbaseballstore.com 705 Mainstreet Hoopville IN United States 77266 Tom Johnson tjohnson@tbaseballstore.com 0

To Forget or Not to Forget: An Examination of the GDPR ‘Right to be Forgotten’



The architects of GDPR stress their intention of the regulation: to increase both individual privacy and innovation. If innovation includes finding ways to be exempt from GDPR, they would be right.

In a growing consumer marketplace that heavily relies on massive amounts of data, it only makes sense that the most realistic approach to compliance will be to find ways to fit through its ‘loopholes’. At the thousand-mile level the regulation is innocuous enough: individuals must be aware of how their data is being used by giving consent and if they choose to, they can request that their personal data be completely removed from further ‘processing’.

A closer look of the regulation lends itself to a few scary sections – especially for data driven industries – which are followed by rather vague exemptions.

To Forget

Business and other organization are increasingly finding ‘secondary’ uses of data – That is to say, data that collected for one purpose, later ends up fulfilling the need of another purpose. An example would be if an online retail company collected address information for shipping purposes, and later ran models on all address data to determine where frequent buyers reside. Under the GDPR’s ‘Right to be forgotten’ – there are some obstacles to this:

  1. “The data subject shall have the right to obtain from the controller the erasure of personal data concerning him or her without undue delay and the controller shall have the obligation to erase personal data without undue delay where one of the following grounds applies:
  2. the personal data are no longer necessary in relation to the purposes for which they were collected or otherwise processed” (GDPR, Article 17.1)

We may be able to understand quite easily, the concept of consent. What is unclear, however, are the events where obligation becomes the condition for erasure. As mentioned previously in the case of the online retail company, would the data have an obligation to be erased? Here we have a condition where the data is no longer is needed for the original purpose but remains very valuable.

Of course, the company may foresee the need for the data and include something in the written consent along the lines of ‘this information will be used for shipping purposes and general marketing reasons’ but this could be a violation of the law’s definition of consent “‘consent’ of the data subject means any freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous “ (GDPR, Article 4.11).

A more concrete example may be the tremendous value of Google search queries. Google Trends, is a way to visually see in infographics how people are using the search engine – what they are searching, what news they are looking for, and what is interesting to them. In 2006, AOL released over 20 Million search queries. Each user remained ‘anonymous’ by substituting their name for a unique ID.

An article written by The New York Times reported that the identities of some users were able to be discerned based on search history, leading to AOL removing the information (Barbaro, Zeller 2006). This is a case of seemingly general data revealing a personal identity. Even though Google Trends represents a mind numbingly large amount of data being aggregated, would it not be possible to discern an identity from it? Furthermore, can the aggregation of each trend ever be considered the “purpose(s) for which they were collected or otherwise processed” (GDPR, Article 17.1)?


Or Not To Forget?

The architects of the GDPR accounted for reasons to continue processing data past its original purpose and allowed for a variety of exceptions. One of such exceptions are in cases of law compliance, essentially leaving all government agencies exempt (as if this was any surprise). Other conditions relate to the public value of the data stated in Article 89 which allows exceptions for “Safeguards and derogations related to processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical purposes or research purposes”.

This would also seem to exempt government sponsored research such as anthropological and other population based research as well as medical and scientific research. For a great read about the research exceptions, check out this article from the International Association of Privacy Professionals: https://iapp.org/news/a/how-gdpr-changes-the-rules-for-research. Thus the main innovation that would come from the law may be for business to find a way to fall into an exception category by expressing a reasonable need for data retention after its initial use.

Consider for example, another use of search query aggregation where Google claimed that they could use the information to locate the spread of the flu virus by analyzing user’s symptom searches. An article from the Guardian, notes that “They also found that the Google statistics, which can be gathered daily, were up to two weeks ahead of the federal government’s data, which took time to assemble because it came from so many doctors” (Pilkington, Google Predicts use of Flue using huge search data). Under the GDPR regulation, this specific use case may qualify as being exempt. However, it is highly unlikely that Google could have foreseen the exact use of its query data. Had GDPR come a few years earlier – this incredibly valuable analysis may have never come to light.

Although regulations and their interpretation have a way of veering in different directions from each other, it will be interesting to see how GDPR will be enforced, what exceptions or exemptions will be made, and how companies, especially ones that rely heavily on large amounts of data will adapt.






Barbaro, Michael and Tom Zeller Jr. “A Face Is Exposed for AOL Searcher No. 4417749” The New York Times 9th  August 2006. https://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/09/technology/09aol.html

Maldoff, Gabe. “How GDPR changes the rules for research” iapp.org. 2018. https://iapp.org/news/a/how-gdpr-changes-the-rules-for-research/

General Data Protection Regulation. https://www.eugdpr.org/

Photo by Dhruv Deshmukh on Unsplash

The BSA’s of The Business Systems Analyst


My job title can sound pretty vague, ‘Business Systems Analyst’ sounds like a few important words strung together. To those outside of the software development world, and perhaps even to those inside, it’s anyone’s guess to what that means. Whenever I’m asked ‘what I do’ , I typically respond one of three ways:

“I am in Software Development”

“I am in IT”

“I wear many hats…”

All are true, but none of them – even when combined, paint a complete picture.  I did a bit of research to find out how others would describe the role of the Business Systems Analyst. I found some pretty insightful things, here is a video from the Technology Profession YouTube channel that does a great job highlighting the job responsibilities as well as the main skills needed. For me, the easiest way to define the role is to break it up into three fundamental components that are already included in the title: Business Systems Analyst.

is for Business

The first, and most important of the three. This is who the Business Systems Analyst serves. The BSA must know the Business, it’s mission, and it’s goals, including an understanding of how the business generates revenue, how the business positions themselves within their market and the overall growth strategy.

I often find myself going down a rabbit hole of tasks and emails before bringing myself to and thinking how does what I am doing effect the goals or mission of my organization?

is for Systems

This is the technological arm of the BSA. Each business relies on systems to successfully deliver their product or service to the customer. A BSA must understand the main systems that the business unit utilizes including the most common use cases, their limitations, and gaps.

The BSA is also responsible for knowing the data each system relies on, how that data interacts with other systems, and the importance of the data.

Perhaps equally as important as knowing current systems, the BSA will need to know how to develop and manage new systems. To do this, he or she should understand the software development life cycle and be relatively up to date with current technologies and trends in their space.

is for Analyst

This is the creative problem solving arm of the BSA. Ultimately, a BSA’s key value proposition is in their ability to implement and come up with new solutions.

Understanding the current state is a fundamental part of the role and the other part is discovering how to improve. The BSA continually challenges the way things are done and looks for ways to optimize.

On the road to optimization, the BSA collaborates with the business, developers, and stakeholders to create a wonderful and hopefully adopted solution.

The Business Systems Analyst is a highly enjoyable and rewarding role. The BSA gets to collaborate with many different business units, take part in the creativity of the development team and contribute to the goals of the business.

If you’re a BSA or work with BSA’s what are some other things you think are important to the role?

The Perfect Detour – From English Major to Personal Trainer to IT Professional



A few months before my last day of college I no longer wanted to do what I went to school for – to teach English at a university. Meanwhile my best friend and colleague was off to his graduate program the following semester, still burning with the same passion he started with. The morning after my college graduation ceremony, I remember waking up with a sinking feeling in the pit of my stomach. The following years were a struggle, both financially and emotionally. I did not know what I wanted to do, or what I was necessarily good at. I submitted resumes for various jobs that involved writing – technical writing, marketing, PR – until eventually taking what I could get. During the following years, I worked several jobs in different jobs and industries.

Until recently, I believed that all of the time spent working outside of my current career in IT was a waste. I was embarrassed over my resume – a hodgepodge of unrelated experiences, certifications, and education. Looking back, I can see that these past experiences, education and employment were leading and shaping me for my future career in software development. A career I get to wake up excited for. A career I am fulfilled by and a career that marries what I enjoy with what I’m good at. I stand now, proud of my resume, despite its eclectic nature. Here are the experiences I will likely never remove from my resume along with some of the skills I’ve learned, borrowed, and abandoned.

English Major

I’m often met with shock when I tell people I Majored in English. ‘Don’t you already speak English?” some would quip. At first, my education would seem like a complete 180 from my current role. That couldn’t be further from the truth.

What I learned

·        How to write clearly

Until recently, I took my writing education for granted. After all, everyone knows how to write! Now I realize how rare the skilled writer is – especially in the corporate world. A skilled writer is able to quickly, clearly and concisely communicate ideas.

In software development writing is a big part of what I do. From user training documentation, to functional specifications and requirement documentation and even daily email communication, writing is one of the most indispensable skills I possess. When technical documentation is being written, or a communication is being sent out to multiple users, I have to make sure that it is able to be processed and understood. The communication has to be free of syntax or grammatical errors.

·        How to quickly generate ideas

Nothing puts the mind to work like having to come up with a ten-page essay the following day! I once had a final where I was required to write five essays in two hours based on prompts I had never seen until then. As an English major, coming up with what to write about is just as challenging and as important as grammar, syntax, and style. We constantly employ brainstorming techniques like round robin, reverse thinking, stream of consciousness and any other creative means to get us to where we need to be.

In software development, coming up with ideas to solve problems or build solutions is an essential part of our work. You can have all the technical skills in the world, but if you don’t know how to think on your toes you will most likely never get the chance to employ those skills.

·        How to take criticism

In my Freshman year, it was a terrible feeling to get an essay back covered in red slashes or to sit patiently in a circle while each of my classmates told me what they didn’t like about my short story. In later years, I learned to appreciate such criticism and even look forward to it. I knew it was making me a better writer. Unfortunately, I’ve learned that a lot of people in the corporate world do not take criticism well. Most people think their idea is the best idea. The problem is they have not been able to detach their self-worth from their ideas and may view the criticism as a judgement of themselves. English majors learn to distinguish between the two and take advantage of good criticism.

In software development it is necessary to willfully accept the criticism of others. A technical lead may have some ideas to make your code allocate memory more effectively. A business user might have a different opinion on the layout of a page. The important thing in software development is to come up with the best solution, even if it is not yours.

What I borrowed

·        The writing styles of my peers and favorite writers.

Some of my communication requires short, concise, sentences. Yet, others may call for elaborate and descriptive sentences. As an English major, I learned different ways to write the same thing.

In software development, and in the corporate world in general – it is important to not only write clearly, but be able to write for any audience. There is a different style of writing in user training than design documentation or functional specifications. Some messages may need to elicit other feelings that cannot be seen in the words themselves – like urgency, confidence, or even reluctance. Not everyone responds best to the same writing style so it is important to be able to call upon many.

What I abandoned

·        Trying to be like others

There is a fine line between being influenced and copying. It was at times tempting to try to write exactly like others, or about what others write about since so much of an English major’s time is spent reading and writing about the works of others. Doing this masks true potential and covers up an original style that is harder to build but much more effective when it is used. I’ve noticed in the corporate world, many people take their own abilities for granted and would just rather continue doing things the way they have always been done or how others would do it.

To be successful in software development bringing out an original idea requires original thinking. Finding an effective way to do something is much more important than continuing the old way. It is important to actively think about the process being done, and how it can be improved.

Mortgage Loan Officer

What I learned

·        How to sell

Before working as a loan officer, I had generally looked at sales in a stereotypical light. I imagined a skinny man in a colorful suit, generously applied cologne, and slicked back hair who only cared about one thing: money. I learned that selling is more than that, and its applications are much wider than most would imagine. An employer is sold by a candidate and hires them for the job. A husband sells himself to his wife when reciting his vows, assuring her that he will be there to love her until death. Zig Ziglar, one of the most listened to sales gurus said ‘Selling is not something you do to someone, it’s something you do for someone’. If you believe what you are selling will help someone, there is no reason to feel ashamed.

A developer can create the best solution with all the bells and whistles – but if he or she is not able to sell the benefits of the tool to the end user, or the customer – the tool will never roll out. Many of us unfortunately know the feeling of working on a project for months and months, only to not receive sign-off or buy-in from the business.

What I borrowed

·        The optimism attitude

 “Either you run the day or the day runs you.” – Jim Rohn

There is a mentality held by almost every successful salesperson. It is one of relenting optimism. In sales, you have to live call by call, imagining an easy sale every time. The failures of the day before should not influence how today will go. The best salespeople go to work excited, and excite others. They exude energy and positivity and motivate others. They operate on synergy and know how to use momentum.

In software development it may be hard to see the light at the end of a tunnel during the middle of a seemingly endless and evolving project. Yet everyday has to be given the same energy and creativity of the last – an optimistic person can make a big difference for team moral

What I abandoned

·        The get rich quick mindset

It’s common for sales jobs to highlight their most successful employees’ accomplishments, and my job was no different. At any moment in the break room you could hear the conversations. “Did you hear John makes twenty thousand a month? Can you even imagine?”. There is nothing wrong with trying to motivate employees but unrealistic expectations do more harm than good. Several employees in my hiring group quit a few weeks after they finished training when they realized that the ‘Easy Money’ was not as easy as they were led to believe. The truth was that the employee making twenty thousand a month had been working in the industry for a very long time, attended sales seminars on the weekends and worked ten to twelve hours a day. There may very well be an easy, quick money sales job out there – Let us know when you find it.

Personal Trainer

 What I learned

·        How to track and measure success

A personal trainer is responsible for keeping others accountable. They need to be able to set realistic goals for their clients, goals that are big enough to make an impact and happen quick enough to be motivating. The goals require creativity, and are usually never the same between clients. One client may have a goal of reaching ten pull ups in one minute, another may want to lose inches while another only wants to lose weight. Setting an unrealistic goal that is not accomplished can cause a client to lose interest. I communicated regularly to my clients about their goals and expectations, showing them where they could improve and where they are doing well, treating each client like a project you have to manage.

Executives speak the language of metrics. They want to know the facts and they want to know if the investment in your project was a good idea. Having clearly defined goals and metrics ready at any moment only helps the possibility of a successful project.

What I borrowed

·        The advice of my clients

The best part about working with people is listening to people. Everyone has a story. Everyone has a slightly different motivation. I learned that the best way to get clients to listen to you is to listen to them. Many of my clients enjoyed our time together because they were able to talk to me about their day, their challenges and even share some aspects of their personal lives. I was able to learn a lot from their personal experiences and life lessons. While they gained from my knowledge of exercise and diet, I gained from their knowledge of business, parenthood, or marriage.

What I abandoned

·        Blaming others

As I mentioned previously, people have different motivations. Exercise is not an integral part of their lives like so many personal trainers. While some may disagree, I’ve noticed that most ‘Gym Rats’ have not yet started a family or work in professions that afford them the free time to exercise. Instead of blaming a client for not hitting a goal, or cancelling on a session, I thought “How can I motivate this person”? Is there an expectation I am not meeting?”.

In my current position, while there is plenty of opportunities to cast blame around I’ve tried to instead focus on what I can control and ways I can improve my communication to better manage expectations.

In a Stanford commencement speech, Steve Jobs said “You can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future”. As I remain anxious about what the future holds, I trust that as long as I attempt to actively learn from my experiences, they can be made to strengthen my future positions – whatever they may be. I hope that this article gives others who may be anxious about their future career some hope and perspective.